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Science Definitions For Middle School

Cory Said:

Go To Fossweb.com and please get these glossarys for me?

We Answered:

Try these first, links to pdf lists ... flash not needed and they have the definitions for you.
http://fossweb.com/resources/vocab/Chemi…
http://fossweb.com/resources/vocab/Popul…
http://fossweb.com/resources/vocab/Plane…
If they don't work, word lists below.

Abiotic Dominant allele Instar Terrestrial
Adaptation Ecosystem Limiting factor Tertiary
Alkaline lake Environment Molting Trait
Allele Exoskeleton Morph Trophic levels
Aquatic Feature Natural selection Tufa tower
Autotroph Food chain Omnivore Variation
Biomass Food pyramid Organism Zooplankton
Biotic Food web Phenotype
Carbohydrate Gene Photosynthesis
Carrying capacity Genotype Phytoplankton
Chromosome Herbivore Population
Community Heterotroph Proboscis
Consumer Heterozygous gene Producer
Decomposer Homozygous gene Recessive allele
Detritivore Incomplete metamorphosis Reproductive potential
Detritus Individual Species


Populations and Ecosystems Glossary Definitions

****

Planetary Science Module Glossary (pdf)
Absolute age Doppler effect Lava tube Phase Sputnik
Analysis Eject Lithosphere Planet Stadium (plural
Angle Ejecta Local noon Planetary system Star
Anorthosite Equator Longitude Plate tectonics Sun
Arc Eratosthenes Lunar regolith Prime meridian Terminator
Asteroid Erosion Magnetosphere Primordial Terraced
Asthenosphere Eruption Mare (plural Projectile Terra (plural
Astrometry Escape velocity Mascon Protractor Terrestrial
Astronaut Evidence Mass extinction Random Uniformly
Astronomy Flyby Meteor Ray Volatile
Asymmetrical Fragment Meteorite Reconnaissance Volcanic
Atmosphere Galaxy Meteoroid Remote Volcano
Barycenter Gas giant Micrometeoroid Resolution Volcanic ash
Basalt Geologic time Milky Way Revolution Volcanism
Breccia Gravity Molten Ridge
Caldera Gravity assist Moon Rille
Calibrated Highlands Navigation Rotation
Circumference Horns Orbit Satellite
Comet Impact Organic Seismometer
Complex Indirect Organism Shadow
Crater International date line Orientation Simple
Crust Interpretation Origin Solar nebula
Debris Iridium Parallel Solar System
Diameter Latitude Pattern Space probe

Chemical Interactions Module Glossary (pdf)
Alchemy Crust Lava Product
Atmosphere Cyclotron Lipid Protein
Atom Density Liquid Proton
Atomic number Deposit Mantle Radiation
Average kinetic energy Dilute Mass Radioactivity
Blood plasma Dissolve Matter Ratio
Bond Dry ice Melt Reactant
Calibrated Electron Metal Room temperature
Calorie Element Mixture Salt
Carbohydrate Energy transfer Molecule Saturated
Carbon dioxide gas Equilibrium Neutron Scanning tunneling microscope (STM)
Chemical equation Evaporation Nitrogen Solid
Chemical formula Expansion Noble gas Soluble
Chemical property Force Nucleus Solute
Chemical reaction Freeze Octane Solution
Combustion Fundamental Organic compound Solvent
Compound Gas Particle Sublime
Compressed Gaseous Periodic table of the elements Substance
Concentrated Global warming Phase Transparent
Concentration Heat of fusion Phloem Vibrating
Condensation Herbicide Physical property Volume
Conduction Hydrocarbon Potash Water vapor
Conserved Insoluble Precipitate Well-ordered array
Contraction Kinetic energy Predict Xylem

Samantha Said:

what is gravity in a simple definition? i'll pick the best answer?

We Answered:

Gravity is the attractive force that acts between al bodies that have mass no matter how small or big. It is also the weakest of all the fundamental forces but because some bodies can have incredibly huge masses like the earth and the sun, galaxies then the accumulated gravity can be extremely big also.

In fact the mass of things can become so big that its own gravity can crush it out of existence into some called a black-hole.

Ken Said:

im doing a school science project and i need help.?

We Answered:

Nucleolus: the heart of the skool, the very center where everyone meets and gathers and possibly a place with some importance to the skool(like the director's office)

Cytoplasm: the skool grounds where people walk and generally all the area surrounding the nucleoulus

Mitochondria: the students and all the teachers and people who are at the skool

Herbert Said:

My fossweb doesnt work so can you help me?

We Answered:

First of all, you can download Flash here, and possibly fix your problem:
http://www.adobe.com/shockwave/download/…
Second, you shouldn't need flash to access the glossaries.

Populations and ecosystems:
Abiotic
Nonliving.

Adaptation
Any trait of an organism that increases its chances of surviving and reproducing.

Alkaline lake
A salty lake where the pH is greater than 7.

Allele
Variations of genes that determine traits in organisms; the two corresponding alleles on two paired chromosomes constitute a gene.

Aquatic
Of the water.

Autotroph
Organisms that make their own food.

Biomass
The total organic matter in an ecosystem.

Biotic
Living organisms and products of organisms.

Carbohydrate
Food in the form of sugar or starch.

Carrying capacity
The maximum size of a population that can be supported by a given environment.

Chromosome
A structure that transfers hereditary information to the next generation.

Community
All the interacting populations in a specified area.

Consumer
An organism that eats other organisms.

Decomposer
An organism that consumes parts of dead organisms and transfers all the biomass into simple chemicals.

Detritivore
An organism that eats detritus, breaking the organic material into smaller parts that a decomposer could use for food.

Detritus
Small parts of organic material.

Dominant allele
A form of a gene that is expressed as the trait when a dominant allele is present.

Ecosystem
A system of interacting organisms and nonliving factors in a specified area.

Environment
The surroundings of an organism including the living and nonliving factors.

Exoskeleton
A tough, outer covering that insects and other organisms have for protection.

Feature
A structure, characteristic, or behavior of an organism, such as eye color, fur pattern, or timing of migration.

Food chain
A sequence of organisms that eat one another in an ecosystem.

Food pyramid
A kind of trophic-level diagram in the shape of a pyramid in which the largest layer at the base is the producers with the first-level, second-level, and third-level consumers in the layers above.

Food web
All the feeding relationships in an ecosystem.

Gene
The basic unit of heredity carried by the chromosomes; code for features of organisms.

Genotype
An organism's particular combination of paired alleles.

Herbivore
An organism that eats only plants.

Heterotroph
An organism that cannot make its own food and must eat other organisms.

Heterozygous gene
A gene composed of two different alleles (a dominant and a recessive).

Homozygous gene
A gene composed of two identical alleles (e.g., both dominant).

Incomplete metamorphosis
A process of gradual maturing of an insect (egg, nymphal stages or instars, adult).

Individual
One single organism.

Instar
An immature nymphal stage of an insect as it grows into an adult form.

Limiting factor
Any biotic or abiotic component of the ecosystem that controls the size of the population.

Molting
The process of shedding exoskeleton in order to grow.

Morph
A form in a species that occurs in one or more forms (such as colors).

Natural selection
The process by which the individuals best adapted to their environment tend to survive and pass their traits to subsequent generations.

Omnivore
A consumer that eat both plants and animals.

Organism
A living thing.

Phenotype
The traits produced by the genotype; the expression of the genes.

Photosynthesis
The process by which producers make energy-rich molecules (food) from water and carbon dioxide in the presence of light.

Phytoplankton
A huge array of photosynthetic microorganisms, mostly single-celled protists, that are free-floating in water.

Population
All the individuals of one kind (one species) in a specified area at one time.

Proboscis
A tubelike beak for sucking fluids from plants. True bugs have this structure.

Producer
An organism that is able to produce its own food through photosynthesis.

Recessive allele
A form of a gene that is expressed as the trait only when a dominant allele is not present.

Reproductive potential
The theoretical unlimited growth of a population over time.

Species
A kind of organism; members of a species are all the same kind of organism and are different from all other kinds of organisms.

Terrestrial
Of the land.

Tertiary
Third level.

Trait
The specific way a feature is expressed in an individual organism.

Trophic levels
Functional role in a feeding relationship through which energy flows.

Tufa tower
A naturally occurring, gray, lumpy structure that forms under water in a salt lake because of a chemical reaction between calcium and salt in the water.

Variation
The range of expression of a trait within a population.

Zooplankton
Microscopic adult animals and larval forms of animals found free-floating in fresh water and seawater.

Planetary Science:

Absolute age
The exact age of an object (such as a rock or artifact), found by techniques, such as radiocarbon dating.

Analysis
An investigation of the parts of a whole and their relationships to each other and the whole.

Angle
The space between two lines or planes that intersect or join.

Anorthosite
A purple-gray igneous rock composed mostly of the mineral feldspar.

Arc
A portion of a circle or something curved.

Asteroid
A medium-sized rocky object orbiting the Sun smaller than a planet and larger than a meteoroid.

Back to top

Asthenosphere
The hot top of Earth's mantle, just under the crust. Evidence suggests that the Moon also has an asthenosphere.

Astrometry
A careful, precise measurement of the positions and motions of objects in the sky.

Astronaut
A person trained to travel and perform tasks in space.

Astronomy
The scientific study of the universe, especially of the motion, position, sizes, composition, and behavior of objects in the sky.

Asymmetrical
Not the same on each side.

Atmosphere
The mass of air surrounding Earth or other planets.

Barycenter
The center of mass of a system of masses, such as the barycenter of the Earth-Moon system; sometimes called the center of mass.

Basalt
A dark, fine-grained volcanic rock composed mostly of iron and magnesium.

Breccia
A coarse-grained rock composed of angular fragments of preexisting rock.

Caldera
A large, roughly circular depression usually caused by volcanic collapse or explosion.

Calibrated
Checked against or adjusted to a known standard.

Circumference
The distance around something, such as a circle or a crater.

Comet
A small, icy body that orbits the Sun in a long, loopy orbit, marked by a tail of gas and dust when it nears the Sun.

Complex
Complicated; made of various interconnected parts.

Crater
A circular depression created by a volcanic eruption; a bowl-shaped depression in a surface caused by a meteorite impact; a large hole in the ground caused by an explosion.

Crust
The thin outermost layer of Earth, another planet, or satellite.

Debris
Fragments of rock broken by a powerful natural force, such as a volcanic explosion; fragments of something that has been destroyed or broken down.

Diameter
The longest distance across something, especially something circular, such as a crater.

Doppler effect
The apparent change in wavelength of sound or light caused by the motion of the source, observer, or both.

Eject
To push or throw out with great force.

Ejecta
Material thrown out of an impact crater.

Equator
The imaginary circle around Earth or a celestial object that is everywhere the same distance from the poles.

Eratosthenes
A Greek mathematician of the Third century B.C.E. who used geometry to determine that Earth is round and calculated that its circumference is 250,000 stadia (46,250 kilometers).

Erosion
The wearing away and transport of soil and rock by weathering, mass wasting, and the action of water, wind, and ice.

Eruption
Ejection of material (including gases, ash, volcanic fragments, and lava) through a central vent, fissure, or group of fissures onto the surface because of volcanic activity, either as an explosion or quiet lava flow.

Escape velocity
The speed required for an object to escape the gravitational pull of a planet or other body.

Evidence
Observations that give support for an idea or hypothesis.

Flyby
Travel past an object in the sky without entering its atmosphere or landing on its surface, but close enough to get scientific information; a spacecraft that makes a flyby.

Fragment
A piece broken off of something else.

Galaxy
A very large cluster of stars (tens of millions to trillions of stars), bound together by gravity.

Gas giant
Any of the four outermost planets in the Solar System. These formed much later than Earth and have a gaseous composition.

Geologic time
The period of time from Earth's formation to the present.

Gravity
The mutual force of attraction between all particles or bodies that have mass; the attraction that Earth or other celestial bodies have on other objects on or near their surfaces.

Gravity assist
Use of a planet's gravity to help a spacecraft speed up, slow down, or change direction as it nears the planet.

Highlands
The oldest exposed areas of the Moon's surface, extensively cratered, chemically different, and higher in elevation than the maria.

Horns
Two sharp points on the crescent Moon, formed by the terminator.

Impact
The action of one object hitting another; to strike something with force.

Indirect
Happening as a delayed or unintended effect; not in a direct line, course, or path.

International date line
The imaginary line halfway around Earth from the prime meridian. By international agreement, the international date line is where the new day begins.

Interpretation
An explanation of the meaning or significance of something.

Iridium
An element found in Earth's crust in small quantities. It is much more common in certain meteorites.

Latitude
The distance measured on Earth's surface north or south of the equator.

Lava tube
A tunnel formed when the surface of a lava flow cools and solidifies and the molten material drains away.

Lithosphere
The solid portion of Earth.

Local noon
The time when the Sun is at the highest point in the sky at a particular spot on Earth.

Longitude
The distance measured on Earth's surface east or west of the prime meridian.

Lunar regolith
Loose rock, mineral, and glass fragments produced by impacts and covering the Moon's surface.

Magnetosphere
The area around a planet most affected by its magnetic field. Its boundaries are set by the solar wind.

Mare (plural
Maria): Dark area on the Moon covered by basalt lava.

Mascon
An area with high gravity on the Moon.

Mass extinction
The dying-out of several plant and animal groups over a brief period of geological time; for example, the dinosaur extinction.

Meteor
A piece of rock from space that hits Earth's atmosphere; also called a shooting star.

Meteorite
A piece of rock from space that reaches Earth's surface.

Meteoroid
Mass of rock in space that becomes a meteor when it enters Earth's atmosphere and a meteorite when it reaches the surface.

Micrometeoroid
An extremely small dust particle found in space.

Milky Way
The spiral galaxy in which Earth and the Solar System are found.

Molten
Melted; changed into liquid form by heat.

Moon
Earth's natural satellite; a natural satellite that orbits a larger celestial body.

Navigation
The science of plotting and following a course from one place to another and determining the position of a moving ship, aircraft, spacecraft, or other vehicle.

Orbit
The path that a celestial body, such as a planet, moon, or satellite follows around a larger celestial body.

Organic
Related to or characteristic of living things.

Organism
A living thing, such as a plant, animal, or bacterium.

Orientation
The positioning of something, or the position or direction in which something lies.

Origin
A starting point or place.

Parallel
When lines, planes, or curved surfaces are always the same distance apart and never meet.

Pattern
A regular or repeating form, order, or arrangement.

Phase
The changing appearance of a celestial body as different amounts of its disk are seen to be illuminated by the Sun.

Planet
An astronomical body that orbits a star and does not shine with its own light.

Planetary system
A star and the planets, moons, and other objects and materials that orbit that star.

Plate tectonics
A theory supported by evidence that Earth's crust and upper mantle are composed of several thin, relatively rigid plates that move relative to one another, causing earthquakes and volcanism.

Prime meridian
An imaginary line on Earth between the north and south poles through the town of Greenwich, England.

Primordial
Existing at the beginning of time.

Projectile
An object that can be fired or launched; for example, a rocket.

Protractor
An instrument shaped like a semicircle and marked with the degrees of a circle; used to measure or draw angles.

Random
Occurring without a specific pattern, plan, or connection.

Ray
A narrow beam of light from the Sun or an artificial light source; white lines that extend in all directions from some craters.

Reconnaissance
A preliminary survey to gain information.

Remote
Situated far away; distant in time.

Resolution
The ability to distinguish separate objects; the number of pixels per area (such as a square inch or centimeter) on a computer-generated display. The greater the resolution, the better the picture.

Revolution
The path of a celestial object around another object.

Ridge
A long narrow hilltop or range of hills.

Rille
A structure on the Moon's surface that looks like a canyon or streambed.

Rotation
The turning of an object on its axis.

Satellite
An object put into orbit around Earth or other planet in order to relay communication signals or transmit scientific data; a celestial body that orbits a larger one.

Seismometer
An instrument used to measure vibrations caused by an earthquake.

Shadow
A darkened shape or absence of light on a surface behind somebody or something blocking the light.

Simple
Having few parts; not complex or complicated.

Solar nebula
The large cloud of gas and dust from which the Sun and planets may have formed over 4.5 billion years ago.

Solar System
The Sun and all the planets, satellites, asteroids, meteors, and comets that are subject to its gravitational pull.

Space probe
A satellite or other spacecraft that is designed to explore the solar system and transmit data to Earth.

Sputnik
The world's first artificial satellite, launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957.

Stadium (plural
Stadia): An ancient measure, equal to 185 meters.

Star
A celestial body usually visible as a small point of light in the night sky; a gaseous mass in space such as the Sun, ranging in size from that of a planet to larger than Earth's orbit, which makes energy by thermonuclear reactions.

Sun
The star in the center of the Solar System around which Earth and other planets revolve.

Terminator
The line separating the illuminated portion of the Moon from the dark part.

Terraced
Having a series of nearly level, fairly narrow ledges.

Terra (plural
Terrae): A light-colored, rough area of the Moon.

Terrestrial
Relating to Earth, rather than any of the other planets.

Uniformly
Being the same as another or others; always the same in quality, degree, character, or manner.

Volatile
Characterized by sudden change; changing into a vapor at a relatively low temperature.

Volcanic
Relating to or coming from a volcano.

Volcano
An opening in Earth's crust through which molten lava, ash, and gases are ejected; a similar opening on the surface of another planet; a mountain formed by the materials ejected from a volcano.

Volcanic ash
Fine-grained lava that erupts in a gas cloud from a volcano before settling on the ground.

Volcanism
The processes involved in the formation of volcanoes, and in the transfer of magma and volatile material from the Earth's interior to its surface.

Chemical Interactions Glossary Definitions

Alchemy
The prescientific investigation of substances, including the search for ways to change common metals into gold.

Atmosphere
The layer of gases surrounding a planet.

Atom
The smallest particle of an element.

Atomic number
The number assigned to an element, based on the number of protons in the nucleus of its atom.

Average kinetic energy
Temperature.

Blood plasma
The clear, amber solution that is the liquid portion of blood.

Bond
An attractive force acting between atoms.

Calibrated
Divided into units that correspond to a standard.

Calorie
The unit of energy that will raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius.

Carbohydrate
A group of carbon-based nutrients, including sugars and starches.

Carbon dioxide gas
A compound made from carbon and oxygen; CO2.

Chemical equation
A representation of a chemical reaction using chemical formulas.

Chemical formula
A code that represents the number and kinds of atoms in one particle of a substance.

Chemical property
A characteristic of a substance that determines how it interacts with other substances.

Chemical reaction
A process during which starting substances (reactants) change into new substances (products) with different arrangements of atoms.

Combustion
A chemical reaction, commonly called burning.

Compound
A substance whose particle is made of two or more different kinds of atoms.

Compressed
Reduced in volume as a result of applied pressure.

Concentrated
A solution with a large amount of solute dissolved in a small amount of solvent.

Concentration
The amount of solute dissolved in a measure of solvent.

Condensation
The change of phase from gas to liquid.

Conduction
The transfer of energy (heat) from one particle to another as a result of contact.

Conserved
Unchanged.

Contraction
The reduction of volume of a sample of matter as a result of cooling.

Crust
Earth's hard outer layer of solid rock.

Cyclotron
An instrument used to create new elements.

Density
The ratio of mass and volume in a sample of matter.

Deposit
The change of phase from gas directly to solid.

Dilute
A solution with a small amount of solute dissolved in a large amount of solvent.

Dissolve
To incorporate one substance uniformly into another substance at the particle level.

Dry ice
The solid phase of carbon dioxide.

Electron
A subatomic particle with a negative charge.

Element
A fundamental substance that cannot be broken into simpler substances by chemical or physical processes.

Energy transfer
The movement of energy from one location to another.

Equilibrium
A condition in which a system is experiencing no net change.

Evaporation
The change of phase from liquid to gas.

Expansion
An increase of volume.

Force
A push or a pull.

Freeze
To change phase from liquid to solid.

Fundamental
Simple and basic.

Gas
A phase of matter that has no definite shape or volume. Particles of gas fly independently through space.

Gaseous
Existing in the gas phase.

Global warming
The increase of average temperature worldwide.

Heat of fusion
Heat that causes the solid/liquid phase change without changing the temperature of the substance.

Herbicide
A plant poison.

Hydrocarbon
A group of carbon-based substances made of carbon and hydrogen only.

Insoluble
Not capable of being dissolved. Sand is insoluble in water.

Kinetic energy
Energy of motion.

Lava
Molten rock flowing on Earth's surface.

Lipid
A group of organic substances that includes oils and fats.

Liquid
A phase of matter that has definite volume but no definite shape. Particles of liquid are loosely bonded, but can flow over and around one another.

Mantle
The large rocky part of planet Earth, located between the core and the crust.

Mass
A measure of the quantity of matter.

Matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space.

Melt
To change phase from solid to liquid.

Metal
A group of elements that stretch, bend, and conduct heat and electricity.

Mixture
Two or more substances together.

Molecule
A particle made of two or more atoms that are held together with strong (covalent) bonds.

Neutron
A subatomic particle with no charge.

Nitrogen
A colorless, odorless, gaseous element that makes up about 78% of Earth's atmosphere.

Noble gas
A gaseous element that does not react with other elements.

Nucleus
The center of an atom, composed of protons and neutrons.

Octane
An eight-carbon molecule. Octane is one of the main ingredients in gasoline.

Organic compound
A large class of substances produced by organisms.

Particle
The smallest piece of a substance that is still that substance.

Periodic table of the elements
A way to organize the elements based on atomic number and chemical property.

Phase
The physical appearance of a sample of matter based on the kinetic energy of its particles. Common phases include solid, liquid, and gas.

Phloem
A plant tissue that transports nutrients to all parts of the plant.

Physical property
A characteristic of a substance that can be observed without changing it chemically, such as size, shape, density, and phase.

Potash
An impure form of potassium carbonate.

Precipitate
An insoluble product of a reaction.

Predict
To make an accurate estimation of a future event based on knowledge.

Product
A substance produced in a chemical reaction.

Protein
A group of nitrogen-containing organic substances.

Proton
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge.

Radiation
A form of energy that travels through space.

Radioactivity
Radiation given off by the elements.

Ratio
The relationship between two numbers.

Reactant
A starting substance in a chemical reaction.

Room temperature
The average kinetic energy of the particles in the air and other objects in a room.

Salt
The product that forms when a metal reacts with an acid.

Saturated
A solution with the maximum amount of dissolved solute.

Scanning tunneling microscope (STM)
An instrument that can create images of arrays of atoms.

Solid
A phase of matter that has definite volume and definite shape. The particles of a solid are tightly bonded and cannot move around.

Soluble
Capable of being dissolved. Table salt is soluble in water.

Solute
A substance that dissolves in a solvent to form a solution.

Solution
A mixture formed when one substance dissolves in another.

Solvent
A substance in which a solute dissolves to form a solution.

Sublime
To change phase from solid to gas.

Substance
A type of matter defined by a unique particle.

Transparent
Matter through which an image can be seen clearly.

Vibrating
Moving rapidly back and forth.

Volume
A defined quantity of space.

Water vapor
The gas phase of water.

Well-ordered array
A repeating pattern.

Xylem
A plant tissue that transports water and minerals to all parts of the plant.

Enrique Said:

Science word used to describe liquid and how Flow-able it is?

We Answered:

Viscosity

Dave Said:

What's the cromosphere and photosphere? And what are solar flares, sunspots, and prominence?

We Answered:

You can easily find stuff like this in wikipedia.But i will answer this for you.Chromosphere is the atmosphere of the sun which is about 10,000 kilometers deep.It is actually hotter than the surface.
The photosphere is the surface of the sun which is about 5500 Celsius.
Solar flares are very big explosions which send out radiation and a lot of other dangerous particles which may fry satellites.Sunspots are black regions on the sun which are cooler than the surrounding surface by about 1000 degrees.They come and go on the sun on a regular 11 year period.A prominence is a big bright loop like feature which extends thousands of kilometers from the sun's surface.
Thats all i know,good luck at the test.

Discuss It!

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MASON said:

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Cheyenne said:

What is the definition of breakage